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Tankers at War: Air Refueling in Southeast Asia

Tankers were essential in allowing heavy fighter-bombers to reach North Vietnamese targets and return. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Tankers were essential in allowing heavy fighter-bombers to reach North Vietnamese targets and return. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Even long-range bombers like the B-52 needed refueling to reach their targets and return to base on far-off Guam. Bombing operations such as ARC LIGHT and LINEBACKER depended heavily on air refueling. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Even long-range bombers like the B-52 needed refueling to reach their targets and return to base on far-off Guam. Bombing operations such as ARC LIGHT and LINEBACKER depended heavily on air refueling. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Thirsty F-105 Thunderchiefs receive fuel from a KC-135 Stratotanker on their way to targets in North Vietnam, December 1965. The KC-135 was the USAF’s first all-jet tanker. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Thirsty F-105 Thunderchiefs receive fuel from a KC-135 Stratotanker on their way to targets in North Vietnam, December 1965. The KC-135 was the USAF’s first all-jet tanker. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Fighter and reconnaissance refueling “anchors.” KC-135 Stratotankers loitered along the oval “racetrack” patterns, awaiting combat aircraft on their way to and from targets in North Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Tanker bases on this map include Takhli, Korat, and U-Tapao in Thailand. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Fighter and reconnaissance refueling “anchors.” KC-135 Stratotankers loitered along the oval “racetrack” patterns, awaiting combat aircraft on their way to and from targets in North Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Tanker bases on this map include Takhli, Korat, and U-Tapao in Thailand. (U.S. Air Force photo)

An HH-3 “Jolly Green Giant” refuels from an HC-130P tanker. The ability to refuel helicopters in flight greatly enhanced search and rescue operations in Southeast Asia by giving helicopters greater range. (U.S. Air Force photo)

An HH-3 “Jolly Green Giant” refuels from an HC-130P tanker. The ability to refuel helicopters in flight greatly enhanced search and rescue operations in Southeast Asia by giving helicopters greater range. (U.S. Air Force photo)

A B-52 refuels over Southeast Asia in 1967. Refueling bombers over vast expanses of ocean required precise navigation and planning. (U.S. Air Force photo)

A B-52 refuels over Southeast Asia in 1967. Refueling bombers over vast expanses of ocean required precise navigation and planning. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Refueling an F-4 Phantom over rugged Southeast Asian terrain, as seen from the KC-135 boom operator’s point of view, 1967. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Refueling an F-4 Phantom over rugged Southeast Asian terrain, as seen from the KC-135 boom operator’s point of view, 1967. (U.S. Air Force photo)

A pilot’s-eye view of the KC-135’s refueling station. Stratotankers could use either the boom by itself, or the hose-and-drogue attachment, seen here. The ability to use either method allowed USAF tankers to service aircraft from all services. Navy and Marine aircraft had probes, while the USAF used both probes and boom receptacles. (U.S. Air Force photo)

A pilot’s-eye view of the KC-135’s refueling station. Stratotankers could use either the boom by itself, or the hose-and-drogue attachment, seen here. The ability to use either method allowed USAF tankers to service aircraft from all services. Navy and Marine aircraft had probes, while the USAF used both probes and boom receptacles. (U.S. Air Force photo)

DAYTON, Ohio -- "Tankers at War: Air Refueling in Southeast Asia" exhibit in the Southeast Asia War Gallery at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force. (U.S. Air Force photo)

DAYTON, Ohio -- "Tankers at War: Air Refueling in Southeast Asia" exhibit in the Southeast Asia War Gallery at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force. (U.S. Air Force photo)

DAYTON, Ohio -- The "Tankers at War: Air Refueling in Southeast Asia" exhibit in the Southeast Asia War Gallery at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force includes a flight jacket and cap worn by boom operator Tech. Sgt. Dan Kimsey, who served with the 91st Air Refueling Squadron, as well as a party suit worn by Lt. Col. John Morris, the operations officer at U-Tapao from 1968-1969. (U.S. Air Force photo)
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DAYTON, Ohio -- The "Tankers at War: Air Refueling in Southeast Asia" exhibit in the Southeast Asia War Gallery at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force includes a flight jacket and cap worn by boom operator Tech. Sgt. Dan Kimsey, who served with the 91st Air Refueling Squadron, as well as a party suit worn by Lt. Col. John Morris, the operations officer at U-Tapao from 1968-1969. (U.S. Air Force photo)

DAYTON, Ohio -- The "Tankers at War: Air Refueling in Southeast Asia" exhibit in the Southeast Asia War Gallery at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force includes official and unofficial unit patches from nearly all of the squadrons that supported air refueling operations in Southeast Asia. (U.S. Air Force photo)
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DAYTON, Ohio -- The "Tankers at War: Air Refueling in Southeast Asia" exhibit in the Southeast Asia War Gallery at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force includes official and unofficial unit patches from nearly all of the squadrons that supported air refueling operations in Southeast Asia. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Refueling in flight made long-distance flying operations possible in Southeast Asia. Heavily-laden aircraft like the F-105 Thunderchief, F-4 Phantom and B-52 Stratofortress needed fuel on the way to and from their targets. Getting gas from tankers allowed them to carry maximum bomb loads, and search and rescue helicopters increased their range with air refueling as well.

Complex Operations
In-flight refueling depended on precise timing and navigation. Bombers, fighters and reconnaissance aircraft were carefully scheduled to meet tankers at given times and places.

When meeting B-52 bombers on long-distance missions, for example, three or four KC-135 Stratojet tankers would fly together, with the leader responsible for navigation and timing. The others stayed a mile behind and slightly above, and they spread out while refueling bombers to keep a safe distance between them.

Refueling fighter and reconnaissance planes near combat zones was complicated. Several meeting areas called "anchors" over Thailand, Laos, South Vietnam and the Gulf of Tonkin were set up so fighters could select the nearest airborne gas station on the way to and from their targets. Sometimes 50 or more aircraft met and circled over a wide area as fuel changed hands. Tankers often overflew hostile territory to meet and fuel planes that otherwise would not have made it home. Many pilots owed the success of their missions -- and some owed their lives -- to being refueled by tankers.

Tankers also refueled helicopters. The USAF tested the concept of in-flight helicopter refueling in 1965 and began operations in mid-1967. Air Force HC-130P tankers, which were modified C-130 Hercules transports, helped search and rescue and special operations HH-3 Jolly Green Giant helicopters greatly extend their range.

Impressive Numbers
The USAF based KC-135 tankers in Japan, the Philippines, Thailand and Guam. During the Southeast Asia War, tankers flew nearly 200,000 sorties, completing more than 800,000 refuelings. From 1964 through 1973, they pumped almost 1.4 billion gallons of fuel to other aircraft, enough to fill more than 2,120 Olympic-sized swimming pools.

At the height of tanker deployment in late 1972, 195 aircraft -- 30 percent of the Strategic Air Command (SAC) tanker force -- were based in Southeast Asia. U-Tapao Royal Thai Air Base, Thailand, was the largest tanker base in Southeast Asia, with 46 aircraft and 88 crews flying sixty sorties daily to keep pace with air power's massive fuel needs.

By mid-August 1973, with the final U.S. air strike in Cambodia, SAC tankers had logged 911,364 total flying hours in Southeast Asia. Tanker operations continued into 1975 with support for evacuations near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and Saigon, South Vietnam, as the war ended.

Though tankers were not used for combat, missions could be dangerous. Twenty-five Air Force personnel died in tanker crashes, on take-off or landing, in Southeast Asia.

Click here to return to the North Vietnam: Rolling Thunder Overview.

 

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McDonnell Douglas F-4C Phantom II
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